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Barak



Joined: 25 Jul 2003
Posts: 22
Location: Nesher, Israel
Barak
I'm a newbe as you will see very soon. I read the FASM tutorial and I have some questions:

1. Why do we need to have 2 or commands do the same operation? for example "int 20h" and:

Code:
mov 4c00h
int 21h    


2. In the tutorial some labels had brackets [] and some didn't why is that and when each one is occured?

3. Can you explain better the JMP operator please?

tnx
Post 06 Oct 2004, 08:51
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wanderer



Joined: 18 Jun 2003
Posts: 44
Location: Moldova, Kishinev
wanderer
It's better for you to read documentation on assembly language & DOS first, then go to FASM manual.

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Best regards,
Antoch Victor
Post 06 Oct 2004, 10:57
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veach1



Joined: 16 Jul 2004
Posts: 165
veach1
1.
Code:
mov ax, 4C00h ; 4C - terminate program (DOS function), 00h - exit code
int 21h ; interrupt for processing DOS services/functions
    

Code:
int 20h ; terminate program interrupt, used in old versions of DOS, but still supported for compatibility
    


2. and 3.
read in attachment


Description:
Download
Filename: Fasmhelp.zip
Filesize: 54.09 KB
Downloaded: 471 Time(s)

Post 06 Oct 2004, 10:58
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vbVeryBeginner



Joined: 15 Aug 2004
Posts: 884
Location: \\world\asia\malaysia
vbVeryBeginner
http://www.madwizard.org/view.php?page=tutorials.contents

http://www.madwizard.org/dl.php?file=tutors.win32asm (by Thomas Bleeker)

it is a ASM tutorial coded in MASM language, but i guess the concept is similiar only the lang is different, so enjoy yourself with the tutorial

http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~ralf/files.html very popular Ralf Brown's Interrupt List (The x86 Interrupt List)
contained information on various interrupt eg. int 21h

sincerely,
sulaiman chang (http://sulaiman.thefreebizhost.com)
Post 06 Oct 2004, 13:00
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Dragontamer



Joined: 24 Aug 2003
Posts: 84
Dragontamer
Barak wrote:
I'm a newbe as you will see very soon. I read the FASM tutorial and I have some questions:

1. Why do we need to have 2 or commands do the same operation? for example "int 20h" and:

Code:
mov 4c00h
int 21h    


This is a Dos issue, not a Fasm issue. Ask the designers of Dos.

Quote:

2. In the tutorial some labels had brackets [] and some didn't why is that and when each one is occured?


[] is the dereference pointer equivalent in Assembly. It roughtly translates to:

(*blah)

in C, if blah was the label.

Quote:

3. Can you explain better the JMP operator please?
tnx


Ever use "goto" in Basic? Same concept.
Post 07 Oct 2004, 00:15
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fasm9



Joined: 19 Jun 2003
Posts: 439
fasm9
It will be good if keyboard-operation is replaced by mouse&graphic to use assembly.

--
To us, newbies at the machine code level, GPU <- CPU(ready <> fetch <> execute <> Interrupt <> Indirect)
Post 07 Oct 2004, 21:42
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crc



Joined: 21 Jun 2003
Posts: 637
Location: Penndel, PA [USA]
crc
Quote:
It will be good if keyboard-operation is replaced by mouse&graphic to use assembly.


No. What if you're blind? It's hard to impossible to use a mouse and gui without the keyboard when you rely on speech synthesis and braille keyboards.
Post 08 Oct 2004, 01:08
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fasm9



Joined: 19 Jun 2003
Posts: 439
fasm9
It was assembly-specific post, not general.

BTW, How many the blind using flat-assembler handy??

--
For the blind, i heard there is eyes which is made by electronics circuits, can be embedded into brain, expensive and but low precision resolution sensor.
Post 09 Oct 2004, 02:19
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crc



Joined: 21 Jun 2003
Posts: 637
Location: Penndel, PA [USA]
crc
Quote:
BTW, How many the blind using flat-assembler handy??


One of the main contributors to RetroForth is blind. Since RetroForth is written in FASM, that means that there is at least one blind user. (He's also attempting to port FASM to SCO OpenServer; if he succeeds, I'll share the results here)

Quote:
For the blind, i heard there is eyes which is made by electronics circuits, can be embedded into brain, expensive and but low precision resolution sensor.


Unless major advancements have been made recently, these are still too limited to be truely useful. Braille and speech synthesis work today Smile
Post 09 Oct 2004, 11:43
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Madis731



Joined: 25 Sep 2003
Posts: 2140
Location: Estonia
Madis731
Off topic:
320x240 resolution was the last news and it was black & white(no-not gray-
scale). That is 10times better resolution than human can see, but why it is
not usable is that human is not used to pixels and it takes time for him/her
to get used to that. Black&white is another setback because the shadows
are what we depend on to see depth. Shadows can be imitated only by all
kinds of color darkening/lightening effects. It is a very complex task for a
human brain to translate 2 320x240 images into stereoscopic picture. If it
wasn't hard enough, the sensors are flat(retina is slightly like a bowl). You
know what fisheye effect is...?
Post 10 Oct 2004, 09:52
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crc



Joined: 21 Jun 2003
Posts: 637
Location: Penndel, PA [USA]
crc
[qiote]320x240 resolution was the last news and it was black & white(no-not gray-scale). That is 10times better resolution than human can see, but why it is not usable is that human is not used to pixels and it takes time for him/her to get used to that.[/quote]

Some good points. I've read that the resolution of the human eye is closer to 1700 dpi, but it's true that seeing pixels is not the same as the way the eye works internally. Also, the exact resolution we can see changes with increased distance, something that I'm not aware of any artificial vision system handling properly.

I would be interested in links that show artficial vision systems that can be used by programmers, and also how effective they are overall.
Post 10 Oct 2004, 11:50
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fasm9



Joined: 19 Jun 2003
Posts: 439
fasm9
all is about process speed and scale.
that's why we need new science like quantum computer.

we can't do many things in electronics. we can't clean air/water polution in terms of 'easy and quick'. also we can't use energy more effectively.

electronics are not physics.

--
very unfunny and slow
http://www.qubit.org


Last edited by fasm9 on 13 Oct 2004, 11:14; edited 1 time in total
Post 11 Oct 2004, 21:55
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Madis731



Joined: 25 Sep 2003
Posts: 2140
Location: Estonia
Madis731
U can't simply calculate human vision in px or DPI:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/rodcone.html
it varys and this is why we see the way we see

--Sorry abõut off topic--
Post 12 Oct 2004, 09:56
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drh3xx



Joined: 11 Sep 2004
Posts: 34
drh3xx
Sorry to continue off topic but I'm confused.

That site says:
Quote:
'Current understanding is that the 6 to 7 million cones can be divided into "red" cones (64%), "green" cones (32%), and "blue" cones (2%) based on measured response curves. They provide the eye's color sensitivity.'


I thought that during RGB to grayscale conversion. Green had the smallest granularity as the human eye was most sensitive to that colour and so changes in it's value had to be kept as small as possible?

Do I need to brush up on my RGB->Greyscale or am I missing something?
Post 12 Oct 2004, 11:05
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Tomasz Grysztar



Joined: 16 Jun 2003
Posts: 7734
Location: Kraków, Poland
Tomasz Grysztar
Post 12 Oct 2004, 11:14
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drh3xx



Joined: 11 Sep 2004
Posts: 34
drh3xx
Yes but I've come to the conclusion that biological waffle isn't my strong point.
I think I got the gist of it.

I guess I'd best stay away from coding that relates to direct neural interfacing when that comes about though Smile
Post 12 Oct 2004, 13:43
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