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Index > Windows > Win64: Stack 16-byte alignment question

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yoshimitsu



Joined: 07 Jul 2011
Posts: 96
yoshimitsu
Hi,
I'm atm trying to get a little familiar with x64, but I'm failing with the basics..

I've read that the stack has to be aligned on a 16-byte boundary.
In the examples the stack is 16-byte aligned on an API call, but gets unaligned due to the call pushing the return address.

It gets realigned on "push rbp" inside a function, though.

Am I understanding something wrong or does EVERY API-function has a leading "push rbp" which therefore gets the stack 16-byte aligned again?

And is the value of rsp always a non-parity power of 8 at a program's entry point?
Thanks.
Post 18 Dec 2011, 13:19
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revolution
When all else fails, read the source


Joined: 24 Aug 2004
Posts: 17467
Location: In your JS exploiting you and your system
revolution
yoshimitsu wrote:
Am I understanding something wrong or does EVERY API-function has a leading "push rbp" which therefore gets the stack 16-byte aligned again?

And is the value of rsp always a non-parity power of 8 at a program's entry point?
You are correct. RSP is always 8 MOD 16 upon function entry. This is part of the fastcall spec.
Post 18 Dec 2011, 13:22
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yoshimitsu



Joined: 07 Jul 2011
Posts: 96
yoshimitsu
hehe, that was fast.

So if I'm writing my own function which should call API-functions but does not need to access via rbp and thus doesn't push it at the beginning, it's mandatory, though, that I decrease rsp by 8?
And on the other hand, if I am using rbp (by using FASM's proc-macro) I have to take it into account when allocating space for the parameters for functions and shouldn't forget that ebp already realigns the stack which is why I then must not add a nonparity power of 8, but a parity one (means 16-byte aligned)?
Post 18 Dec 2011, 13:27
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revolution
When all else fails, read the source


Joined: 24 Aug 2004
Posts: 17467
Location: In your JS exploiting you and your system
revolution
yoshimitsu wrote:
hehe, that was fast.

So if I'm writing my own function which should call API-functions but does not need to access via rbp and thus doesn't push it at the beginning, it's mandatory, though, that I decrease rsp by 8?
And on the other hand, if I am using rbp (by using FASM's proc-macro) I have to take it into account when allocating space for the parameters for functions and shouldn't forget that ebp already realigns the stack which is why I then must not add a nonparity power of 8, but a parity one (means 16-byte aligned)?
In your own code you can do whatever makes sense to you. It is only when you interact with the Windows API that you need to align things properly.

The most common trap with an unaligned stack is the XMM register values. If they are not saved to 0 mod 16 then you can get problems. But most other stuff is fine with the less strict 0 mod 8.
Post 18 Dec 2011, 13:44
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